Jennifer, tough break and I had just assumed workers had to be covered by workman's comp via OSHA, etc.... Whoa, something to check on regardless of the state. Good reminder that private insurers do not cover the work environment tho.
More immediately ...
Medically and financially speaking, is there anyway the guy could go across to Mexico to get the surgery? Seriously, that's what my (very Anglo) step-family did in the El Paso region, .. go across to Ciudad Juarez for quality dental, vision, and some surgery* (we are talking Wonderbread Anglo here - border businesses speaks English btw and the docs train in the US). Maybe for oncology I'd stay on the US side but for bone-setting in a non-ER, if uncovered by insurance, I'd make a run for the border (to quote the old TacoBell ad). Set up in San Antonio/Brownsville, El Paso/Las Cruces, Tucson, or San Diego, ... get a cheaper passport card and take the bus or cheap cab over.
*Bonus: once across the border, care can't be tracked.