I got a few years before Medicare : )
But I think this all is representative of everyone under ACA - some people a little better off, some worse. and 95% of the people have insurance with employer, Medicare, or Medicaide so ACA has no effect, although like you said, employer paid for insurance rates may change. Hard to determine whether changes are due to ACA or just the steady increases we've been seeing for years.
I read some study that psycologically, a bigger co-pay doesn't proprotionally discourage un-necesary trips to doctor. If you have $100 instead of $20 it doesn't reduce trips to doctor very much.
The decision to x-ray should be medically based. They shouldn't do it if it's not necesary. If it is necesary, someone shouldn't have to decline because they can't afford it. $1000 deductible may be difficult for some people.
I think there should be rules, for example when to x-ray, based on data. If your leg is sore but you can still walk on it, don't do an x-ray, wait a week. Or whatever the data based rule would be. But leave final decision to doctor because you can't always have a perfect set of rules.
Or to put it another way, look at what places like the Mayo Clinic and Cleveland Clinic are doing and replicate that nationally.