As a SM living in Colorado Springs, here are a few suggestions north to south for consideration...
1. Denver: Red Rocks amphitheater, Rockies game, REI Flagship store, 16th Street Mall, Denver Museum of Natural History, Mile High Stadium...er Sports Authority Field, Denver Buffalo herd at Genesee Park (west of Denver)
2. Castle Rock: Quick hike up/around the rock
3. Colorado Springs: USAFA (hike part/all of the 13-mile Falcon Trail (VERY much like Philmont), Visitors Center, Chapel, etc.), U.S. Olympic Training Center, Garden of the Gods Park, and a drive up Pikes Peak (it's 13 miles and 7500' if you want to hike it), Barr Trail up to Barr Camp (half way up Pikes Peak) is 6 miles and only 3500' gain
4. La Junta, CO: Koshare Indian Museum, http://www.kosharehistory.org/(originated with Scouts)
5. Cimarron: Monster cinnamon rolls at Heck's
6. Santa Fe: Bandolier National Monument (cliff dwellings), White Rock Overlook of the Rio Grande, Los Alamos Nuclear Lab, Old Santa Fe, Palace of the Govenors, NM History Museum, Loretto Chapel, Basilica of St. Francis
Within 10 hours of Philmont, there's a ton to do/see... I know I'm missing things like the Great Sand Dunes, Four Corners, Mesa Verde National Monument, etc. Good luck deciding...