Generally, yes. As long as you apply the silicone to a silocinzed or bare woven material it will stick. I note that for stripes, they should be troweled out, but may still peel. Thinner is better than thicker. A trowel cut from a plastic milk jug works well. Contrary to what you might think, use it to scrape away any excess, not spread it.
For a bivvy or tent floor, simply diluting it well with mineral spirits/White Gas brushing it well onto the whole surface works: about 15 to 1, MS/Caulk ratio. Painting the whole bottom will work about as well as just applying stripes/dots close enough to work.
Besides dirt/dust on the fabric, the thickness of the silicone seems to be key to keeping the stuff from peeling. Adhesion between the substrate and the silicone needs to be higher than adhesion in the silicone. The result is generally no peeling. If applied too thick, it can peel.
I use this same technique on canopies when they are stretched and leaking, or, misting, too.