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Arrowhead 135 Winter Race
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Alec Muthig
(Alekat) - F

Locale: Wyoming, USA
Arrowhead 135 Winter Race on 02/12/2007 13:12:02 MST Print View

Thanks to all of you that helped me prepare for this.

Arrowhead 135 Winter Ultra
International Falls to Tower, MN
Feb 5, 2007

Frosty face has a blog that covers the race and results.

Preparing for this race was much more logistically involved and specialized than any other race I have run and this preparation, in one form or another, took a year and a half. Hours of research on the Internet, examining countless gear reviews, reading Arctic exploration and mushing stories, asking questions on various forums, talking with friends in Alaska, ordering mounds of gear and testing it all in the
mountains near Laramie where we were blessed with a real winter - plenty of snow and temps dropping regularly to minus 20 (f). Every aspect of this expedition was very interesting, but also time consuming. I modified and remodified my pulk sled regularly, even
including adding a bungee system to soak up some of the startup shock. Training was just as exciting, requiring hours of pulling that
pulk sled to work out the bugs and strengthen my hips and back. I
ended up spending 4-5 nights in the mountains, pulling by day and
sleeping at night. Everything came together a week before the race. I
was ready for the minus twenty temps that they have had in the
previous two years.

Although northern Minnesota had less snow than normal, they had just
started the worst cold-snap in years, with a week of temps that never
reached above zero. The forecast for the start of the race went back
and forth, varying a few degrees on either side of minus 25. It was
so cold leading up to the race that the airlines were unable to keep
the planes moving, so my running buddy didn't show up until the day
before the race. The plan was that we were going to stick together,
which made me nervous - especially when I found out that A) he just
got his cold weather gear last week, B) had no experience in below 0
temps, and C) had a poor season of training leading up to the race.
MY plan was to mix running and walking and to snack and drink
regularly and stop every 4.5 hours to melt snow, fill up my 100oz
reservoir and eat a small hot meal. This plan had worked very well in
my multi-day training sessions.

At the pre-race gear check, a bearded bear-of-a-man carefully
examined the required gear, checking the sleeping bag tag for the -20
rating, quizzing you to see if you really knew what you were doing and
then weighing your required gear. Mine weighed just under 18lbs,
although all of my gear would be closer to 40-45lbs. Since it was so
cold, I added overboots and an extra fleece top to my load, just in
case. At the pre-race meeting the organizers briefed us on the rules,
the trail conditions and told us that instead of a mass start we
could start when we got there so we would not freeze while standing
around - good idea! With my pulk loaded and double-checked, I slept
fitfully the night before the race.

On Monday, Feb 5th, we drove out to the start area and hooked into
our harnesses. It was minus 30 with a minus 45 windchill. The first
wave of racers left at 7:25am. We were a bit behind them, checking
out at 8:16. Although there is really only one official checkpoint
during the race, at the 74 mile mark, there were actually a series of
unofficial checks, allowing the race to be better broken up into
smaller segments. The first segment actually was the only out-and-
back in the race, taking us from the highway start, westward (into
the breeze) for 8-9 miles to the official start of the Arrowhead
Trail, where we would turn around and head back and past the starting
area. It was a slow, cold start. My buddy informed me that he didn't
plan on running any of the race, that it would be a long hike for
him, and thus a long hike for me as well. Sigh. Fifteen minutes into
the race the tube of his hydration reservoir froze up. I asked him if
he had been blowing the water back out of his tube, and he didn't
realize that was necessary. We fiddled with that and other gear
issues on and off for the next hour. Stopping to do that at such cold
temps is a great way to get chilled. The breeze was cold enough that
I had to put my fleece neck gaiter over my nose, at which point the
moisture from my breath froze into a thick ice mask that stayed with
me the entire time. Not a huge problem, just an annoyance. I'd thaw
it when I was able to get inside, somewhere, sometime. After getting
to the turnaround and backtracking to the start over the sometimes
grassy frozen marshes, we met the Brazilian runners coming toward us.
They were wearing fur-covered Mad Bomber hats, full face-masks and
snowmobile suits! Their sleds were huge. Although they are the
organizers of the new Brazil 135 race they were completely
inexperienced in the cold. Also, they decided to buy most of their
gear when they got to International Falls, so ended up with propane
campstoves (which would not work due to the cold) and bags of
charcoal so they could light warming fires at the lean-to shelters
every 10 miles along the trail. Charcoal? I guess I should have
brought some bratwursts! After visiting with them for a few minutes
we headed on toward the start area and the end of what we considered
section one. Because of the extreme cold and slow pace (moving and
drinking), the two inches of drinking tube that was somewhat exposed
from my pack (only neoprene over it) froze solid. I went on, figuring
that I would remedy this when I got to the 18 mile point. It took us
another hour and half to reach it (5.5 hours total time for this
section), leading to the start of my dehydration. I felt so put off
of my original plan that I was flustered at this point. During our
stop, my buddy decided to drop out and I set down to eat a meal.
Putting my parka on over my pack allowed the hydration tube to thaw.
After about 45 minutes I decided to start again. A race volunteer at
this point told me that the convenience store at 41 miles (the next
segment) was planning on closing at 8:00pm. I could make it if I
hurried... So I pushed myself over this next 23 mile stretch. I
pushed myself too much. This section was more pleasant than the first
part of the race, winding through forests over nice, wide trails that
had been packed by snowmachines. It was still cold, but the breeze
was either blocked or at my back. There were two runners in front of
me. I caught one just as the sun was dropping. His sled had broken
and so we spent the next 45 minutes trying to fix it. The temp
dropped dramatically when the sun went down and I should have put on
a parka as I worked with him. I was going to stay with him until we
got moving again. No way I was going to leave him here alone in the
middle of the woods while the temps plunged toward minus 30 again.
Luckily two volunteers on snowmobiles showed up and helped out. They
watched the other racer carefully since he had started shivering
badly. I felt free to move on and so started running a bit harder to
try to warm up and also get to the store in time. I kept thinking "if
I could get to the store, I could dry off, warm up, eat, get warm
water and be ready to go on, but if it's closed... I dunno" All
through this stretch I had to drink from my water every 5 minutes to
keep it from freezing, blowing slush back into the reservoir a number
of times. Finally, water stopped coming out - either I was out or it
was frozen, but I needed to make the store, so I pushed on. By the
time I was approaching the store, I was pretty damp, covered with
frost and dehydrated. It was 8:30... sh#t! But the lights were on,
people were inside, the store was open!!!! Yes! I dropped my sled
harness in a snow bank and went inside - having wonderful food
(pastries, cocoa, soup, gatorade) and feeling warmth. I dried my
clothes in a dryer and thawed my water. In a little over 12 hours I
had drank about 50oz, the rest was frozen up inside of my reservoir.
My plan was to drink 100oz every 4.5 hours but got knocked off my
plan and then felt the need to hurry to the store. Bad fluster! By
not putting warm water in my res every 4.5 hours I allowed the entire
system to freeze up! I sat and debated, talked with another racer who
had 2" blisters on his heels and after two hours geared up and headed
outside. I immediately started shivering, which I knew was a bad
sign. It would be 15 or more hours before the next checkpoint (the
only official one) and I would be out all night and morning, already
chilled. So I decided to stop.

One of the racers is still in the hospital with toes blistered black.
He was out all night, lost, disoriented and finally stumbling into
the store late the next morning. His fingers were cracked and he had
lost a tooth trying to open his water bottle. He will most likely
lose some toes. The race organizer caught his toes just in time, as
his feet were purple when he reached the checkpoint. He will be
unable to run in the upcoming Iditarod Trail Invitational. I went out
to meet the only runner to complete the race, Sarah Lowell from North
Carolina. She was about 4 miles from the finish when I found her and
looked pretty good for being out for 54 hours in that cold. She told
me that she was not sure she would have continued from the
checkpoint, but her extra inspiration was that her race was raising
money for a student in her class with cancer - and much of the money
depended on her finishing. Wow.

Quite an experience. I was disappointed at first, not so much from
the DNF but more so since I was so easily thrown from my plans.
A few more notes...

1) In a race like Arrowhead, self-supported over 50-60 hours with
only one checkpoint, a strategy similar to that used by long-distance
mushers is preferred - where movement is based on regular cycles of
moving, feeding, resting. This cycle-based strategy can be contrasted
to a typical dash for a checkpoint, followed by a period of trying to
collect oneself for the next dash. (I wanted to do the former, and
believe it would have worked well, but got pulled into the dashing.)

2) Systems tested with success at one temperature may fail at a
slightly colder temperature, especially once temperatures slip below
zero. The change from 60 to 50 degrees is a 10 degree drop, but the
results of this drop are limited if even noticeable. The 10 degree
drop from -20 to -30 or -30 to -40 becomes much more noticeable.

3)Footwear used: Thin neoprene socks, Montrail Susitna GoreTex XCR
shoes with gaiters, Cresecent Moon overbooties glued to the toes of
the shoes. Overall, this system worked very well. My feet did not get
cold, even when stopped, although they did start to get pretty damp
in the neoprene socks which resulted in one small blister. This could
have gotten worse as the race went on. Also the overbooties stayed on
the shoes and did not reduce traction - although I do need to
reinforce the neoprene near the toes with some cordura for toughness.
In the future I may try a larger shoe with Injinji tsoks as a liner,
a vapor barrier sock over them and then a wool sock to complete the
system. I may even try some mukluks instead of running shoes.

4) My neck gaiter iced up over my face. I may try a thin neoprene
facemask with breathing cutouts (nose and mouth) and use a gaiter
over that for insulation.

Edited by Alekat on 02/12/2007 13:15:24 MST.

Alec Muthig
(Alekat) - F

Locale: Wyoming, USA
Re: Arrowhead 135 Winter Race on 02/12/2007 13:12:49 MST Print View

Yikes, when I pasted it kinda looks funny... sorry.

Eric Noble
(ericnoble) - MLife

Locale: Colorado Rockies
Re: Arrowhead 135 Winter Race on 02/12/2007 14:52:08 MST Print View

Wow! Thanks for the report Alec. My experience in the winter is limited. I have really appreciate being able to follow your preparations for this race. You have taught me a lot. It was great to hear that your footwear was a success for the most part.

One question about #4. Did you consider something like the Psolar face mask? I'm currently considering this for use next winter.

How did you feel your gear weight and bulk compared to others in the race? Were the Brazilians at the extreme or not that far from the norm? Were you drinking straight water or using some additive in it?

Edited by ericnoble on 02/12/2007 14:53:56 MST.

Alec Muthig
(Alekat) - F

Locale: Wyoming, USA
Re: Re: Arrowhead 135 Winter Race on 02/12/2007 15:24:34 MST Print View

"One question about #4. Did you consider something like the Psolar face mask? I'm currently considering this for use next winter."

I did look at heat exchangers awhile back. I'd like to test one to see if I can get enough air flow through the module. The cold air never seemed to negatively affect my breathing, although the exchanger would help reduce energy usage in the long run. A simple neoprene facemask would have helped me quite a bit.

"How did you feel your gear weight and bulk compared to others in the race? Were the Brazilians at the extreme or not that far from the norm? Were you drinking straight water or using some additive in it?"

I think you guys at BPL have skewed my thought on light loads. I went into this thinking my load was going to be average but turns out my load was lighter and smaller than most. I can only think of 3 or so runners who may have had lighter loads than me. All of the talk on this forum help very much. It's nice to know that my load will only get lighter from here! The Brazilians had the craziest loads. They somehow thought they could just buy their gear in International Falls when they arrived so ended up with snowmobile suits and KMart gear (and charcoal to light fires every 10 miles). I was drinking pure water. I rarely add anything in my reservoir. Some salt may have helped stall the freezing a little, but at those temps I don't think it would have helped much. Vodka wouldn't have froze though!

Here are the Brazilians:
Crazy Brazilians

Sam Haraldson
(sharalds) - MLife

Locale: Gallatin Range
Arrowhead 135 Winter Race on 02/12/2007 16:05:39 MST Print View

I have enjoyed reading your commentary leading up to the race. Glad to hear that the race went well for most people. That weekend was about the worst time I could imagine being outside running a race up here in Northern Minnesota. Congratulations on making it as well off as you did.

s k
(skots) - F
Re: Arrowhead 135 Winter Race on 02/12/2007 19:52:40 MST Print View


I’ll second Eric’s Wow! Congratulations on your success.

Your trip report and notes indicate that you’re already planning for the next step in the process. If you decide to compete again next year, I hope that you’ll continue to post your strategy, planning, and results. My appetite for vicariism grows when the temps drop to thirty below.

Nice job, Alec.

Christopher Plesko
(Pivvay) - F

Locale: Rocky Mountains
Re: Re: Arrowhead 135 Winter Race on 02/12/2007 20:18:15 MST Print View


Nice job out there staying safe. I should see you next year if you make the trip again although I'll be on a bike. I'm continually hashing out my gearlist as I test my winter gear this season.

Aaron Sorensen
(awsorensen) - MLife

Locale: South of Forester Pass
Re: Re: Re: Arrowhead 135 Winter Race on 02/12/2007 22:26:18 MST Print View

Yes Alec,
Since only 1 person finished, from what I read your part of the race was definitely a success.

I am glad to see that you were able to drop some weight from this board. Did you get a chance to pull any other pulks that would be around the weight you thought you would be at in order to see how much easier yours was from loosing the weight?

I am just wondering how much of your gear would have just sat in your pulk and not been used?
Packing ones insecurities is a lot harder to deal with in minus 30* weather.

So are you going to go for it again next year?
You already have 90% of what you want already.

Good Job!

Edited by awsorensen on 02/12/2007 22:27:12 MST.

Christopher Plesko
(Pivvay) - F

Locale: Rocky Mountains
Re: Re: Re: Re: Arrowhead 135 Winter Race on 02/13/2007 06:45:19 MST Print View


Keep in mind there is a 15lbs minimum required weight plus your food, water and fuel you intend to consume. IE, you have to finish carrying at least 15lbs of stuff no matter what. I'm going to attempt to hit the mark on the button but you're going to be carrying 20lbs-25lbs pretty easily at all times for this race.

Alec Muthig
(Alekat) - F

Locale: Wyoming, USA
Re: Re: Re: Re: Arrowhead 135 Winter Race on 02/13/2007 11:30:52 MST Print View

I'll go back again. Trying to decide on Arrowhead 135 or Susitna 100 for next year, but I think I need to go back and finish... Actually, a year will be too long to wait. I want to go try it again next week!

Chris Jackson
(chris_jackson) - F
Re: shivering on 02/13/2007 19:46:29 MST Print View

Alec, thanks for the excellent writeup. Since dehydration sounds like it was a major issue, I thought I'd pose a couple of related questions. First, if you had not been dehydrated, do you think you could have continued the race safely, without risking hypothermia or frostbite? Was your equipment and conditioning adequate? Second, could you compensate for dehydration by wearing lots of additional clothing? Perhaps the effects of dehydration at low temperatures are so severe that the human body can't function adequately? Finally, did you wear a VBL shirt?

Colin Parkinson
(parkinson1963) - F
Re: Re: Re: Re: Re: Arrowhead 135 Winter Race on 02/13/2007 21:54:29 MST Print View

Re: Neoprene face mask, I run in the winter up here in Canada and have tried the neoprene face mask. It gets slimey from your breath as it is used and also freezes up around the nose and mouth. I just use a fleece neck tube over my mouth and nose the trick to keeping the neck tube thawed is to rotate the tube around your neck once in a while so you are breathing through a drier less frozen spot.

Alec Muthig
(Alekat) - F

Locale: Wyoming, USA
Re: Re: shivering on 02/13/2007 21:58:36 MST Print View

You're correct Chris, dehydration was a major factor and if I had continued I would have been fighting hypothermia and frostbite all night. It would have been complicated by the exhaustion I would have felt, and without being hydrated, burning calories would have been more difficult. Without the furnace creating heat, all the clothing in the world may still have not been enough, depends on how far into hypothermia I fell.

My equpiment that I did get to use worked well. I'll likely make some modifications to my hydration pack (more insulation), some clothing changes (to try to get rid of moisture better), etc. But what I had would have gotten me through the race.

Conditioning? Good question. Even though I had practiced pulling the pulk, I had only put in a little over 100 miles of pulling, and never with that much weight. My hips and hamstrings were getting tired by the time I stopped so am not sure if they would have held up. Next time I need to pull much more in training. I am planning to make a wheeled version of my pulk to tug around on the dirt forest service roads this summer. That should be a sight!

As for VBL, I only wore the GoLite Vapor vest. It worked well, but I'm still experimenting with venting and moisture...

Edited by Alekat on 02/13/2007 21:59:26 MST.

Bill Fornshell
(bfornshell) - MLife

Locale: Southern Texas
Arrowhead 135 Winter Race on 02/14/2007 00:03:41 MST Print View

Did you see anyone using The North Face electric-heated hydration system?

The North Face - Snowday
The North Face - Flask

Edited by bfornshell on 02/14/2007 00:05:02 MST.

Alec Muthig
(Alekat) - F

Locale: Wyoming, USA
Re: Arrowhead 135 Winter Race on 02/14/2007 10:02:54 MST Print View

I didn't see any out there Bill, but they could have been. Have you seen any reviews or detailed articles regarding the performance of the HTR systems, especially in minus 20 or colder temps?

I may pick up the Snowday pack to test out (and add to my collection of packs... I think I need a pack closet.)

Joseph Aulwes
(eispickel) - F
Re: Arrowhead 135 Winter Race on 02/14/2007 11:14:51 MST Print View

How deep was the snow? Would snow shoes help? I would love to do this race next year.

Bill Fornshell
(bfornshell) - MLife

Locale: Southern Texas
Arrowhead 135 Winter Race on 02/14/2007 11:46:24 MST Print View


I haven't seen any real reviews of either one of the two models. I did ask the CS person I talked to some questions about the low temperature range. He called TNF and then called me back. TNF says the low temperature for the heater is 15 degrees "F". I think the 15 degrees number is a CYA number. The system has a sensor or for me a better word would be a "thermostat" that turns the heater on at 36 degrees "F". It stays on until the temperature goes back above 36 or the batteries die. I don't have any idea how long the batteries last with the heater turned on. I don't know how long the batteries last.

The CS person got one of the Flask models and removed the tube/heater unit. He said it comes out easy but the heater part is inclosed so you can't really see much of it.

In talking we both agreed that a person should be able to add some insulation around the tube/ heater unit and lower the bottom temp. range. How low would require testing.

I am trying to get just the heater part if possible as I have no real use for another pack. The CS person is checking to see if that is possible. has them on sale at this time but only at a small discount. They start a big winter clearance sale on the 15th - tomorrow. They also run "Steep and Cheap" and I would buy the complete system if it went on sale at a good discount.

The CS rep said he hasn't seen the sale list and he doesn't know if these will come up on Steep and Cheap. He did say that if I bought one and it went on sale within 30 days at Backcountry or S&C they would refund the difference. He said he would give me a call back when he gets an answer on buying just the tube/heater unit.

Arapiles .
(Arapiles) - M

Locale: Melbourne
Re: Arrowhead 135 Winter Race on 02/14/2007 14:24:57 MST Print View

Were people using chemical hand warmers to keep their water unfrozen? That's an approach I've heard of in Japan.

Edited by Arapiles on 04/23/2007 15:36:55 MDT.

Alec Muthig
(Alekat) - F

Locale: Wyoming, USA
Re: Re: Arrowhead 135 Winter Race on 02/14/2007 17:09:22 MST Print View

This year there was too little snow for snowshoes. If there was enough snow they would have been grooming it for snowmachines and it would have been nicely packed. The only way you would need snowshoes would be if a storm occurred right before or during the race. I had them at the hotel in case they called for a storm, but instead called for clear weather and bitter cold, so they didn't come out.

Alec Muthig
(Alekat) - F

Locale: Wyoming, USA
Re: Re: Arrowhead 135 Winter Race on 02/14/2007 17:12:34 MST Print View

People were using chemical handwarmers for lots of things. I put a few in with my reservoir late in my race but I must not have let them get enough oxygen before putting them in my pack and they never got warm enough to make a difference.