Another road-biker here. I like to ride remote roads to a campground and back. It makes for a great winter/spring weekend trip if the weather is sunny. More interesting for me, for some reason, than winter backpacking where I live (Bay Area).
People like me, who have a roadbike but not a touring bike or a pannier setup, can just wear a lightweight pack or fanny pack. I find I need to keep pack weight under 10 pounds, otherwise my hips/back start to hurt and the extra weight throws me off both uphill and downhill. It helps to leave the tent and stove behind, and to attach weightier stuff, such as food, to the bike somehow, in an under-seat bag or bento box.