A quality material will keep you warmer and dryer.
If the air permeability is too low then not enough sweat vapor will pass - not good- if it is too high then warm air will move through too fast and cold air will enter the other way too easy. This can be more pronounced on a thinner quilt intended for medium temps.
It is easier for people to inhale than exhale!
That difference in pressure that you are able to generate in each direction can help evaluate the air permeability of many small weave DWR and non DWR fabrics. Fit average adults can inhale about 30-50% harder than they can exhale. My notes apply to a fit man.
Hold the fabric tight to your mouth. With tight pursed lips suck in air though the fabric. You can tell it is moving OK- not enough to breath easy or anything close to that but defiantly getting some air intake- you could stay alive for 5 - 10min (exhaling only through the nose) but it gets very tiring pretty fast. NOTE : DO not try this more than 10sec. DANGER.
With the same tight pursed lips try to blow through it outward. Harder than sucking it in. It is fairly hard but you can get feel a very very tiny bit moving through and the air volume in your cheeks decreasing but not so much that you can actually feel it on bare skin close to the other side. -If you are strong and focus a single burst then maybe a tiny bit of feeling on skin. You would pass out in under two min only trying to exhale through the material. NOTE : DO not try this more than 10sec. DANGER.
For me, this test correlates to about .5-.9 cc of air permeability (AP) - A good range for a quilt, windshirt or bivy top.
With a thin and overly breathable fabric and you can easily suck and blow though even easier than above described- like light weight silks.
Frankly, all the sub .7oz sq/yd 10d , 8d , 7d , and 5d material I've tried have fallen above this .9 cc AP - like silk- all overly breathable. A thick DWR plus heavy calendaring would bring down the air permeability on those weaves into the good range but the weight of that extra DWR would push it well over .7 oz/sq/yd.
An AP above 1.0 would be good in a double wall tent inner that you wanted to breath a lot but wold not not as good in a windshirt, bivy top or quilt shell.
I have tested an 8d - pictured- that was good and had OKish DWR but the weave was dense and it weighed .76oz sq/yd- I will also say the Montbell down vest I have is 7d and just about right in dwr and breathability - BUT it is a very dense 7D weave (maybe even a 7d X 10D vs a 7d X 7d) and for sure it is over .7oz sq/yd. The total weight has more to do with the weave density than only the size of the thread (denier) and a small d dense weave can weight more than a larger d low density weave.
Can’t blow or suck hardly any air at all - or none? It’s may be pretty close to waterproof and not much water vapor can get through either. I note this since we saw some former BPL posts on a 20d recently that had a waterproof rating around 1,000mm- that's waterproof! The DWR is so thick it can not breath well. There is a lot more to this particular story and it involves me sending thousands of $$$ in fabric back to a distributor since it was a non-breathable and essentially waterproof small weave DWR.
NOTE: This simple test is for DWR breathable fabrics - it far more complicated with waterproof /breathable WPB fabrics and this test will not work at all. Don’t even try it.
There are a lot of variables that factor in - too many to go into in this post- so take it with a grain of salt.
Try this test on all those three samples you have and I think you will see a clear difference.
I do have a very set AP number I know I like for a bivy and light quilt fabric based on feedback from many many night in the field and I can now use this simple test as a fast screen on a stack of materials to narrow it down for more accurate testing.
Here is a pic showing stack of about 50 different small denier fabrics from a recent round of AP , Strength and DWR testing I used to select our latest fabric- Endurance 10d X 10D - In the pics show a range from a 5d X 5d .6oz/sq yd to a 20d that is 1.05oz sq/yd. We could have bought any of them but chose the 10d X 10D Endurance with a 3xDWR at .74oz sq/yd.
Well, I'm not sure how useful this since most folks won't have many samples to use to get a good baseline. The Momentum 90 and 55 from thru-hiker does fall into this good range. If you would like a sample of the Endurance 10d x 10d we use just send an SASE to me. If you do this test over time you may get a feel for what works for you. It could be very use full in testing windshirts before buying since you would have a fav at home to use as a baseline.
The OP asked about Thermal Efficiency for a quilt. Of the three choices listed I think the the M90 is the clear winner based on the above info. I think that the air permeability has the most correlation to thermal efficiency in a sub 1.1oz material.
For any application you have to balance the various aspects. For a quilt top, if the choices were all below about 1.1oz - I would then select the best one based on these criteria- listed in order.
1: Air Permeability- must hit the sweet spot
2: DWR Quality- must be excellent and last a long time without a negative effect on #1
3: Strength - must be strong enough for the application
4: Weight - If it is strong enough and all the above factors are satisfied- then lighter is better
Other factors like appearance, softness, workability, price , etc would more individual type factors.