I appreciate the dialogue!
You are correct that the DOI says nothing about public education or welfare; they are not basic human rights. The "creator question" is an excellent one. Continue your research on the DOI. The original draft did not include it. It was probably added by John Adams or Benjamin Franklin. After Jefferson's initial draft, it became a collaborative effort. I hate collaboration; the less talented often dilute the work of genius. And it was edited (diluted) so it could be approved by the 2nd Continental Congress... that means Jefferson's work was compromised. Aside from that, its importance is that men are free to form their own government and that the role of government is to protect the rights of all men. These rights are more important that government itself. Jefferson’s first draft included the word "property" and this is paramount, as it means that we are entitled to keep what we produce. This is the first time that individual rights became more important than preserving the country, government, or king.
The study of Western Civilization includes philosophy. Everyone needs philosophy. Aristotle was not perfect in his philosophy, but it is the starting point in a study of philosophy, so the intelligent person can develop his own philosophy and not accept someone else's lock, stock, and barrel. Why is he important? His philosophy was the mind's Declaration of Independence. His contribution is the foundations of the rational.
Objectivity: A is A. We cannot change this. Morality is a code to guide us in our actions, but it cannot change nature. We cannot change anything by wishing it were different. A moral code guides us in life's choices and actions... but it must be based on objective reality. By taking my property (money or other), you are denying me of my right to my property without my consent. This is immoral. Mankind forms social groups or governments by choice; it is not a basic requirement for survival. Aristotle and Jefferson realized the value of government and society, but insisted that such social interactions cannot abridge any person's right to his property, his freedom, his life, or his pursuit of happiness. Men must be free to trade (goods and services), but force may not be used to take away anything from any man.
Aristotle said that man must be able to exercise free choice about what he needs or wants, and this must be allowed to happen without coercion from outside forces. This is what is required to pursue happiness. Aristotle called this “living the good life,” as happiness is not a Greek word nor is there an exact translation. He also said that man must have liberty to plan his life to "live well." To live this good life, he said that we need real goods to support our quest and we have a right to the goods we produce. He also said that if an individual fails in his life, it is his own fault. He acknowledged that all of us may have bad luck, and that we all need to take advantage of the good things that happen, but none of these components of a good life are guaranteed... the individual must create them for himself (your question on health care). He also said that men form social groups voluntarily for their own purpose. He also said that others have no right to claim our help.
Regarding criminals: No man has the right to deny any of us the full use of our own property, freedom, or pursuit of happiness. And it is immoral to initiate force against another human being, whether it is physical or other. And those who violate these basic human rights must suffer the consequences. This is the purpose of government. We do not deny a criminal of his basic rights; he has chosen to give them up by initiating force against another.
Money: Money is only a means to exchanging goods and services. Money can only exist and have exchangeable value by the men who produce. Money in itself is not evil; it only is a mechanism of trade. Money is how we store the excess of our own production and wealth, and it is our property. Aristotle said that we need to produce personal wealth so we can live the good life.
To summarize, Aristotle said the purpose of man's life is to "live the good life" and it is his own responsibility to achieve it, and no one has the right to deny or take anything away from him.