Where are you camping?
No combination of stakes and cudgels will work with every soil condition. Utah's hardpan will yield only to rock drills and pitons. Yet pitons will not work as well as 1/16" titanium 'u' stakes in soft soil. Almost everyone who uses light stakes drills a pilot hole first in troublesome soil. It's SOP. Hammers are a dime a dozen in the outdoors. Rocks, hunks of wood, bootheels (as you mention) all work in a pinch. But an angle-cut 1/8' stake can be "drilled", turned, into almost anything by hand. On the other hand, it makes little sense to carry a hammer when there are so many alternatives.
Solutions: 1) Pick your tent site for softer soil (and better sleeping). Established campsites tend to have hard-packed ground, not to mention dished tent sites that collect water. A nice, soft bed of pine straw out in the woods is a fine alternative. 2) Learn a few tricks for when you don't have a choice. These include the deadman recommended by Regenald. Also, you can fill stuff sacks with sand, gravel or smooth rocks to make anchors. You can tie the tent line around a stick or rock, then pile rocks on top. You can carry extra line that will reach that distant crack in the rock (if you are camped on rock, Uggh) or the bush that is at the right angle but normally too far away. Nothing wrong with long lines, and they don't weigh nearly as much as a sledge and heavy stakes.