For Chad's example I'd recommend switching the order of the tops: polypro with wool over that. The wool layer should take up the moisture that the polypro layer can't handle. When you stop, take the wet wool off and layer a windshirt over the damp poly base layer. What little moisture is in the poly layer can be dried off slowly under body heat under a wind layer. If that isn't enough, out comes a synthetic belay jacket with hood, right over the wind shirt/base layer.
I use this same order with socks and I usually only swap out the wool layer, the inner poly sock stays dry enough or dries quickly. The problem with this order of layering is the poly picks up stink faster, although Xstatic treated poly holds it down to a reasonable level.
Another thing that helps to keep cool and evaporate stinky sweat rather than trap it is matching pit zips in base layers, mid layer and wind layer. Exposing a small area of bare skin under arms to cool air really helps control temperature and one can manually 'bellow the layers to promote a draft. I've had to add these myself; with a one way zipper it's best for the zipper pull when closed to be at your fore-arm to prevent the pack strap from interfering with adjusting. Full open is wherever the pack strap stops the zipper pull.
For winter exertion I've gone so far as to make a wind shirt with a mesh back as I don't often remove my pack, and when I do the belay jacket isn't far behind. This doesn't completely prevent a wet back and it also makes the windshirt heavier than just using thin ripstop. But it helps. A winter only windshirt could have a roll up fabric back panel with zippers or velcro to make it useful as a stand alone garment without the pack, but again in winter rain repellancy isn't an issue, and without the pack if it is getting cold or windy the belay jacket is the ticket.
It's pretty easy to sew an open mesh panel to the inside back of an existing windshirt, zigzag top stitch for fray control, then carefully cut away the original windshirt just near the topstitching leaving a mesh panel. Or use an old shirt as a pattern and make one from scratch from 1.1 ounce ripstop, Thru-hiker's Momentum cloth, and athletic or poly mesh from outdoor Widerness fabrics.