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LED Headlamp REVIEW SUMMARY 2003: Petzl, Princeton Tec, Black Diamond, and Photon

A comprehensive review of sub-6-ounce LED headlamps from Princeton Tec, Black Diamond, Petzl, and Photon.

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by the Product Review Staff | 2003-12-12 03:00:00-07

LED Headlamp REVIEW SUMMARY 2003: Petzl, Princeton Tec, Black Diamond, and Photon


In terms of volume of units, LED headlamps will be the #1 outdoor specialty consumer item purchased this December (Source: current purchasing trend info supplied by outdoor specialty retailers).

There are now dozens of LED lights on the market, with about two or three dozen in a headlamp style. The major U.S. market players are Princeton Tec, Black Diamond, and Petzl. Photon, Brinkmann, Lightwave, Streamlite, Tektite, and Pelican are all vying for the remainder of the pie, and overseas manufacturers such as FrontaLED and Speleo Technics offer high end (read: pricey) offerings for alpinists and cavers.

Gear Guide Index - Product Specifications

NOTE: For a comprehensive comparison of LED Headlamps (not including hybrid LED-halogen models) from around the world, ranging from the ultralight to the ultra-expensive, check out our new LED Headlamp Gear Guide. The Gear Guide also includes several LED headlamps that are not reviewed herein.

Review Index

In this review, we narrow the field down to LED headlamps that weigh less than six ounces (170 grams), and that distribute their lightware in U.S. markets (hey, you have to be able to get it in time for Christmas, right?).

You can click on "Review" to read a headlamp's performance review, and "Specifications" to view its Product Card in our LED Headlamp Gear Guide.

Trail's Best Award Winners

We are pleased to announce two headlamps as winners of our Trail's Best Awards for 2004:

Honorable Mention - Petzl Tikka Plus. The Tikka Plus competes very well on a performance basis with the Princeton Tec Aurora, but we gave the Aurora the Trail's Best designation due to slightly better usability in cold conditions.

Review Methodology

In this review, we focus primarily on cold weather usability and cold weather performance. Evaluation of headlamps in cold conditions is prudent because they are primarily used in the dark - when temperatures plummet. Thus, herein we test battery life and light output at 38 °F (3 °C). In addition, we evaluate headlamp usability and operation with cold, bare hands, and in cold conditions while wearing thin liner gloves, mid-weight windproof fleece gloves, shelled ski gloves, and shelled 300-weight fleece mitts - in the field - where at the end of the day, one is tired, hungry, and cold. Through this methodology, we are better able to evaluate the anticipated field performance of headlamps, rather than the typical industry standard of reviewing light performance at 70 °F (21 °C) and usability with bare fingers while typing the review at a keyboard in a warm cubicle.

Usability Assessment. For each headlamp, we evaluate weight (of course), headband design, changing the batteries, tilting the housing, operating the switch, and changing light modes (where applicable). We pay special attention to be able to perform these tasks with bare, cold hands, as well as gloved and mittened hands.

Cold Weather Performance. For each headlamp, we evaluate its initial performance with fresh batteries at room temperature (at both the beam center and the beam edge). More importantly, we take a look at the degradation of beam intensity over a 24 hour period when the lamp is left on continuously and incubated at 38 °F.

Performance Comparison Summary

TABLE 1. Measured Weights

ModelWeight w/o BatteriesWeight w/BatteriesWeight w/Lithium AA Batteries
Black Diamond Ion0.64 oz (18 g)0.97 oz (27 g)n/a
Black Diamond Moonlight2.88 oz (82 g)4.03 oz (114 g)n/a
Black Diamond Zenix3.37 oz (96 g)4.54 oz (129 g)n/a
Petzl Zipka0.92 oz (26 g)2.07 oz (59 g)n/a
Petzl Tikka Plus1.39 oz (39 g)2.54 oz (72 g)n/a
Princeton Tec Scout1.01 oz (29 g)1.41 oz (40 g)n/a
Princeton Tec Aurora1.49 oz (42 g)2.66 oz (75 g)n/a
Princeton Tec Matrix 23.74 oz (106 g)5.34 oz (151 g)4.69 oz (133 g)
Photon Fusion3.36 oz (95 g)5.78 oz (164 g)4.81 oz (136 g)

For a detailed assessment of the performance of each individual LED headlamp, the reader is referred to the individual reviews, accessible by clicking the link(s) above in the "Review Index" section.

TABLE 2. Measurement of beam intensity (Lux) at room temperature with fresh batteries

BATTERIES USED: Energizer Photo lithium AA's were used for evaluating the performance of the Photon Fusion and Princeton Tec Matrix 2. Energizer Titanium E2 AAA's were used for all AAA headlamps. Energizer 2032 coin cell lithium batteries were used for the Princeton Tec Scout. The stock Black Diamond 6V battery was used for the Ion.

Beam Quality Index is a measure of the ratio of beam intensity at its edge (1-foot off center at a distance of 2 feet) to beam intensity at the beam center. Higher values of the Beam Quality Index indicate a beam pattern that is more like a floodlight, while lower values of the Beam Quality Index indicate a beam pattern that is more like a spotlight. Scale: 0 to 100.

ModelLux @ CenterLux @ EdgeBeam Quality Index
Black Diamond Ion11886.8
Black Diamond Moonlight113119.7
Black Diamond Zenix (Hyperbright)43871.6
Black Diamond Zenix (Normal)12597.2
Petzl Zipka1651810.9
Petzl Tikka Plus259135.0
Princeton Tec Scout11121.8
Princeton Tec Aurora203136.4
Princeton Tec Matrix 279281.0
Photon Fusion255228.6

TABLE 3. Comparison of lux at cold vs. warm temperatures with fresh batteries

Values for warm temperatures are repeated from table above. Values for cold temperatures were collected by incubating headlamps at 38 °F overnight (turned off) before light intensity measurements were taken.

ModelLux @ 68 °FLux @ 38 °FQuality of Cold Light Beam
Black Diamond Ion1184236%
Black Diamond Moonlight11310795%
Black Diamond Zenix (Hyperbright)43839791%
Black Diamond Zenix (Normal)12511592%
Petzl Zipka16515292%
Petzl Tikka Plus25925297%
Princeton Tec Scout1118173%
Princeton Tec Aurora20317285%
Princeton Tec Matrix 279260476%
Photon Fusion25522086%

TABLE 4. Lux decay at 38 °F

Measurement of headlamp beam intensity decay in response to incubation at 38 °F. Light is turned 'on' at time zero. Time zero values are reproduced from table above.

ModelLux @ 0 hoursLux @ 8 hoursLux at 24 hours
Black Diamond Ion4231
Black Diamond Moonlight1074113
Black Diamond Zenix (Hyperbright)39722344
Black Diamond Zenix (Normal)115146
Petzl Zipka1526025
Petzl Tikka Plus (High)2527512
Petzl Tikka Plus (Medium)1105726
Princeton Tec Scout (High)81149
Princeton Tec Scout (Medium)51106
Princeton Tec Aurora (High)1726414
Princeton Tec Aurora (Medium)883824
Princeton Tec Matrix 26045520
Photon Fusion (Hyperbright)2202050
Photon Fusion (Brilliant)1551430

Comparisons to Consider...

2-LED Headlamps

  • Black Diamond Ion
  • Princeton Tec Scout

3-4 LED Headlamps

  • Princeton Tec Scout Aurora
  • Petzl Zipka
  • Petzl Tikka Plus
  • Black Diamond Moonlight

Hyperbright LED Headlamps

  • Black Diamond Zenix
  • Princeton Tec Matrix 2

Headlamps that can accept AA Lithium Batteries

  • Princeton Tec Matrix 2
  • Photon Fusion

Headlamps that are easy to operate and change batteries in cold weather and/or with gloves or mittens

  • Princeton Tec Matrix 2
  • Black Diamond Zenix


"LED Headlamp REVIEW SUMMARY 2003: Petzl, Princeton Tec, Black Diamond, and Photon," by the Product Review Staff. (ISSN 1537-0364)., 2003-12-12 03:00:00-07.


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LED Lights
Discussion of light-emitting diode (L.E.D.)-based flashlights and headlamps. The reader is referred to the following articles as basis for this discussion:
In addition, to provide context for the lightware that is currently available on the market, the reader is also referred to:
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Ryan Jordan
(ryan) - BPL Staff - MLife

Locale: Greater Yellowstone
Headlamp of the Future? on 11/26/2003 00:00:42 MST Print View

So, a question to LED headlamp users:

What initially governed your decision(s) to purchase the LED lights you currently use?

Packed size?
LED flood brightness for closeup work?
Long-beam projection for night navigating?
Battery life?

My ideal headlamp has a low weight and tiny size with no sacrifice in short range flood brightness or long range beam projection.

My favorite light is still the Black Diamond Gemini, because of the excellent range of its xenon beam and the battery life/short range brightness of its LED. New technology means they can certainly do better on the LED side, and the BD Zenix is a step in the right direction, but its main light still not as bright as the Gemini's xenon beam. I used a Gemini on an all-night 'emergency' descent of the Middle Teton (10 hours of rappelling down a rotten rock couloir in a storm), so we have kind of bonded. My highest priorities in my "headlamp of the future" is to retain the functionality of this lamp, while improving LED short range flood brightness and shaving weight and bulk.

Your ideal headlamp?

Edited by ryan on 12/06/2003 06:25:35 MST.

Rick Dreher
(halfturbo) - MLife

Locale: Northernish California
Battery choices on 11/30/2003 18:29:30 MST Print View

I have some unanswered questions from preparing the article series for you E.E. or electronics hobbyist types out there. Here’s the first:

Since super-premium alkaline batteries offer more capacity than lithium cells, and since lithiums cost perhaps five times as much as alkalines, might power management circuitry eventually compensate for alkaline battery voltage roll-off such that alkaline performance might equal or better that of lithiums? (Ignoring low-temperature performance.)

--Rick Dreher

Kevin Sawchuk
(ksawchuk) - BPL Staff - MLife

Locale: Northern California
LED lights on 12/01/2003 16:17:32 MST Print View

I prefer a headlamp for versatility--The Petzel I have has three brightness options which is nice for battery conservation and not having a light to bright for reading. It has acceptable brightness for hiking on trails at night, is poor for running at night (I run Ultras and the 100 mile versions require night trail running). It gives better contrast for hiking if you hold it in your hand instead of keeping it around your head. For dedicated handheld use the Princeton Tec Attitude (or their TD40 with a LED module "pushed" to 4 AA cells--this has no warrenty from Princeton Tec but has worked well for me) work well and are light. AA Lithium batteries are also much lighter and last longer than Alkaline.

Ryan Jordan
(ryan) - BPL Staff - MLife

Locale: Greater Yellowstone
Re: LED lights on 12/01/2003 16:24:24 MST Print View

Kevin, tell us more about your TD40. This sounds like a good concept. Did you do the mods or did PTec? and how?

obx hiker
(obxcola) - MLife

Locale: Outer Banks of North Carolina
led lights on 12/02/2003 19:09:26 MST Print View

Please name some relatively common/accessible sources for AAA lithium batteries. I think I've looked at half the major chain electronics big boxes in NC & VA ( w/ no luck)

obx hiker
(obxcola) - MLife

Locale: Outer Banks of North Carolina
Re: led lights on 12/02/2003 19:23:46 MST Print View

I did find this info from a web search: states on their web-site:

AAA Lithium 1.5V batteries are currently not made. If a lithium battery is rechargeable,
it is 3.6V, not the standard 1.5V. There is a lot of confusion about this. You cannot use a 3.6V battery where a 1.5V is required. If you would like a rechargeable option for a standard AA, or AAA battery check out our rechargeable battery page and select the NiMH batteries for your best option.

Rick Dreher
(halfturbo) - MLife

Locale: Northernish California
Re: AAA battery choices on 12/03/2003 10:09:07 MST Print View

As you've discovered, nobody's making lithium AAAs at present. What I've not been able to find out is whether there's a technical reason (they don't scale down well) or a marketing one (wouldn't sell enough of them).

Note that the common rechargables, Ni-MH, etc. put out somewhat less than 1.5 volts, although this doesn't seem to be a problem with flashlights.

--Rick Dreher

John Coyle

Locale: NorCal
Re: Headlamp of the Future? on 12/06/2003 00:12:38 MST Print View

Speaking of the devil, my favorite light, which I have only had for a month, is the BD Zenix(the correct spelling.) I recently did a night hike with my son, who was using a Petzl Myo 3, near Cool CA, the same area a jogger was killed by a mountain lion 7-8 years ago. We both agreed that my Zenix had brighter beam projection and closeup flood light than the Petzl, which is a pretty good light too. I should mention that both headlamps had new alkaline batteries(Zenix 3 AAA, and Myo 4 AA.) Interestingly enough the BD Zenix is totally LED, while the Petzl is a combination long beam Xenon and closeup LED. The Zenix weighs 4.9 oz with batteries, and I can't think of any other LED headlamp in this weight class with such good long beam characteristics. A fairly strong long beam is helpfull in identifying nocturnal animals, a favorite pastime of mine.

I would have loved to have seen a mountain lion on our hike, but unfortunately this did not happen.

John Coyle

Kevin Sawchuk
(ksawchuk) - BPL Staff - MLife

Locale: Northern California
PTec light on 12/12/2003 22:28:26 MST Print View

Sorry I didn't check back sooner Ryan--The PTec module is available commercially for around $30. It is sold so an individual can convert their older headlamps to LED technology. The module supposed to be used with 2 AA cells and the TD40 is a 4AA light. PTec will not warrenty 4AA use, but when I talked to a rep he said that several people had done this for some time without problems. This configuration has seen me through three Western States 100 races (from 9pm when it's dark till I finish around midnight) and many winter commutes home from work. It is NOT a headlamp, but for night hiking/running I prefer my light closer to the ground for more brightness and better contrast/shadows.

Robert Molen
(molen) - F
Rayovac Sportsman 3-in-1 Head-Lite on 12/13/2003 06:54:51 MST Print View

Great review!

Princeton Tec Aurora - I agree that this is a excellent light for around the camp, but it does not have a long enough beam for night hiking.

Black Diamond Gemini - I also really like this light except for the weight... 7.1 oz w/ batteries. I went so far as to make a 3AAA battery pack to replace the 3AA battery pack getting the weight down to 4.9 oz w/ batteries. Because behind-the-head battery packs are uncomfortable lying on my back reading, I moved the custom 3AAA battery pack to the front.

Rayovac Sportsman 3-in-1 Head-Lite - This is the light I am currently using. Weight is 4.5 oz with 3AAA alkaline batteries. It has an excellent short range white LED light, a krypton spot light for longer range and night hiking, and two red LEDs I use all the time to keep my night vision... amazing how many more stars you can see. It is cheap too at $12.99. If I could only get rechargeable AAA lithium batteries for it...

Red Photon Micro-Light 3 - This is my backup light with its red LED and SOS feature weighing 0.4 oz with batteries. Besides preserving night vision, a red LED also extends battery life 10 times a white LED.

Debra Weisenstein
Aurora criticisms, etc. on 12/14/2003 07:27:37 MST Print View

I have 2 negative comments on the Aurora, neither of which seem to have been taken into account in the reviews.

(1) The swivel mechanism loosens over time. I've had to retighten mine twice. It's not a big deal if you're are at home and have the proper screwdriver to tighten it, but in the field it makes the headlamp unusable, as it refuses to stay where you point it.

(2) The switch is in a very awkward place for us left-handers. A centrally-mounted switch is much better from my point of view.

I also own a Moonlight, which I really like except that it once developed contact problems and had to be returned to REI for replacement. I've heard this from other Moonlight owners, and seems to be a design problem when the battery pack is separate from the light unit.

A Gemini is now my light of choice when night hiking and camp use are both possibilities.

Petzl Duo Belt is the one I use in New England winters for the AA (ie. lithium) capability and separate battery compartment that can be kept inside your clothing.

Ryan Jordan
(ryan) - BPL Staff - MLife

Locale: Greater Yellowstone
Re: Aurora criticisms, etc. on 12/14/2003 07:56:28 MST Print View

RE: Aurora pivot head becoming loosened over time. We were aware of this problem in on the Aurora and paid close attention to it. Because this was an issue with initial shipments of the Aurora to retailers, we took it to an engineering lab and cycled the hinge pivot through 5000 complete (down and up) cycles. There were no issues whatsoever about the hinge become loosened and Princeton Tec has appeared to make good on their claim that the problem has been addressed. If you have an Aurora with that has its hinge become loosened after a short time, consider contacting the company and initiating a warranty exchange. -- Ryan

Richard Sullivan
(richard.s) - MLife

Locale: Supernatural BC
Black Diamond on 12/16/2003 23:05:17 MST Print View

My first generation BD Moonlight has developed the broken cord syndrome. BD reports that this is a known defect with early Moonlight and Gemini models, but are now equipped with beefier cords. Retailers are under instruction to replace all lights with this symptom, or you can ship directly to BD.

Note that the new versions of these models can be identified easily. The new Moonlight has multiple brightness control, and the new Gemini has two LEDs instead of one.

Folks - should I get my defective Moonlight replaced or get it upgraded to the new Zenix? BD has said they will do this if I pay the difference. Seems like a no-brainer for the Zenix, but just wondering if anyone had any opinions.

Ryan and Rick - Thanks for all your great work on this topic!

Richard Sullivan
(richard.s) - MLife

Locale: Supernatural BC
Re: Headlamp of the Future? on 12/16/2003 23:09:46 MST Print View

Ryan - do you have the first generation Gemini with the single LED? Do you have any idea how the short range flood brightness of the single-LED model compares with that of the new dual-LED model?

Gary Lewis
(evertrek) - F
Re: Aurora criticisms, etc. on 12/16/2003 23:42:41 MST Print View

My BD Moonlight also has the contact problems you describe, Debra. My quick fix for it is to use a clunky rubberband and twist-tie arrangement to force the wire into an angle that allows the light to work, but to do this I have to wear the battery pack over to the side a bit instead of at the back of my head. The light is the 2002 model, but I only used it about 100 hours and never abused it. Time for a different light.

Regarding my hoped-for ideals in a light:

* LED(s) that would allow me to run on rocky trail without slowing down much, but that has a lower setting for camp use. Battery use for technical/runnable travel: 15-20 hours. Regulation would be needed, I think.
* A combined high-power spotlight capability, probably xenon, that could illuminate far ahead for occasional navagation puzzles.
* Pivoting head, ideally detachable for hand use. I experimented a couple nights ago and found that indeed, as Kevin Sawchuck wrote, one can see better for technical running and power walking with the light at hand level. Not only because of better "shadowing" but also because varying the left/right angle of the light sometimes illuminates better foot placements.
* Use of 123 lithium photo batteries would allow the above ideals for about 4 oz. (Ref. the tactical lights by Surefire and Arc.) Maybe even a design using 2 or 3 AA lithiums could pull that off.

I'm considering buying a good hand-held LED light as my walking/running light, and carrying a tiny light like the Ion for camp tasks. Or even lighter for camp work, I may try gluing velcro to my cap's bill and to a microlight (I like Inova's brand best). For night walking, a reviewer from sewed small elastic straps onto his bill to mount a Princeton Tec Impact LED handheld. An option for relatively smooth trail even when running, if the hat stays stable enough.

Are there any plans to review handheld LED lights here some time in the future? Ryan, your methodology and analysis are much better for backpacking purposes than those used by the several LED light review sites.

Rick Dreher
(halfturbo) - MLife

Locale: Northernish California
Re: Black Diamond on 12/17/2003 10:31:15 MST Print View

Hi Richard,

Thank you for the information from BD. As a gen-1 Moonlight owner myself, it's good to know about this weakness and BD's replacement policy.

The Zenix's flexibility compared to the Moonlight makes it awfully attractive. If you have even occasional need for the high beam, it's an easy choice. The Moonlight does have a broader, more even beam (compared to the Zenix on low) and is lighter. Other than price, those seem to be the only Moonlight advantages.

Best regards,


Richard Sullivan
(richard.s) - MLife

Locale: Supernatural BC
Re: Aurora criticisms, etc. on 12/22/2003 21:41:26 MST Print View

One of my local retailers reports that he no longer carries the Aurora due to numerous switch failures. Anybody else hear of this?

Ryan Jordan
(ryan) - BPL Staff - MLife

Locale: Greater Yellowstone
Re: Re: Aurora criticisms, etc. on 12/22/2003 21:44:41 MST Print View

Again, I am under the impression that this was an issue with the initial production run - but that the issue has since been addressed.

Richard Sullivan
(richard.s) - MLife

Locale: Supernatural BC
Re: Headlamp of the Future? on 12/22/2003 22:15:08 MST Print View

The ideal headlamp at present seems to be the PT Yukon HL, but it's a bit heavy at 8 oz (~7 oz with lithiums).

I am curious about the performance rating of the BD Zenix in the review. It could probably be improved by wearing the battery pack underneath a hat, and this would be fairly easy since the pack is slim. Maybe the Zenix is the best all-round lamp at present if the wearer can keep the battery temperature up?

The ideal headlamp for the near-future appears to be a Matrix 2 with some additional small LEDs for short range lighting. I am surprised that PT did not incorporate this, but hopefully they will soon.

I'd like to add that reliability is critical to the title of "ideal" headlamp. I've been carrying battery operated lights into the wild for 30 years, yet I am still plagued by failures. Ultimately, the thing has to work when it is needed most, regardless of performance characteristics, weight, or usability features.

Rick Dreher
(halfturbo) - MLife

Locale: Northernish California
Re: Headlamp of the Future? on 12/23/2003 10:24:42 MST Print View


Would you mind detailing some of the failures you've experienced over time? Have you noticed some failure categories falling by the wayside as the technology advances; have any new failure modes appeared?

I can note some failures I no longer experience, now that I've moved to LED lights:

* Shattered lenses (this was becoming less common already)
* Burned out and broken bulbs
* Rapid battery failure (due to high current draw or to the light switching on in my pack)
* Failure to operate in wet conditions

We are still dealing with electrical circuit failure (battery contacts, wiring, switches and now, electronic controls); mechanical failure of the lamphead or battery pack and battery failure due to high current draw (in high performance lights) and/or cold temperatures. Also, not all LED lights are immune to moisture effects.